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Publications by Topic

(Please note Dr. Riggins has formerly published under the name T. DeBoer)


Riggins, T., Canada, K. L., & Botdorf, M. (2020). Empirical evidence supporting neural contributions to episodic memory development in early childhood: Implications for childhood amnesia. Child Development Perspectives, 14(1), 41-48. PDF


Allard, T., Canada, K. L., Botdorf, M., & Riggins, T. (2023). Longitudinal exploration of binding ability across early childhood: The differential contribution of hits and false alarms. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 184(6), 385–398. PDF

Ji A., Lorenz M., Bahary .S, & Riggins T. (2023). How the Brain and Memory Grow Up Together. Front. Young Minds. 11:920671. doi: 10.3389/frym.2023.920671

Riggins, T., & Bauer, P. J. (2022). A developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to the study of memory. In The Development of Memory in Infancy and Childhood. Eds. M. Courage & N. Cowan. Routledge Press.

Canada, K., Hancock, G., & Riggins, T. (2021) Developmental changes in episodic memory across early- to mid-childhood: Insights from a latent longitudinal approach. Memory, 1–14. Advance online publication. PDF

Canada, K. L., Pathman, T., & Riggins, T. (2020). Longitudinal development of memory for temporal order during early to middle childhood [Special issue]. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. PDF

Bauer, P. J., Dugan, J. A., Varga, N. L, & Riggins, T. (2019). Relations between neural structures and children’s self-derivation of new knowledge through memory integration. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 36, 1-11. PDF

Robey, A.* & Riggins, T. (2018). Increasing relational memory in childhood with unitization strategies. Memory and Cognition, 46,(1) 100-111. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-017-0748-6. PDF

Blankenship, S. L.*, & Riggins, T. (2015). Developmental differences in relations between parent-reported executive function and unitized and non-unitized memory representations during childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, section Developmental Psychology, 6, 1214. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01214. PubMed PMID: 26347683; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4541290. PDF

Riggins, T. (2014). Longitudinal investigation of source memory reveals different developmental trajectories between item memory and binding. Developmental Psychology, 50(2), 449–459. DOI: 10.1037/a0033622. PubMed PMID: 23855256; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3951329.PDF

Riggins, T., Cheatham, C. L., Stark, E., & Bauer, P. J. (2013). Elicited imitation performance at 20 months predicts memory abilities in school age children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 14(4), 593–606. DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2012.689392. PubMed PMID: 24436638; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3891774. PDF

Riggins, T. & Nelson, C. A. (2013). Memory in at-risk populations: Infants who experience metabolic disturbances during the prenatal period. In P. J. Bauer & R. Fivush (Eds.), Handbook on the Development of Children’s Memory. Wiley-Blackwell.PDF

Riggins, T. (2012). Building blocks of recollection. In S. Ghetti & P. J. Bauer (Eds.), Origins and Development of Recollection: Perspectives from Psychology and Neuroscience. (pp.42-72). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340792.003.0003

Bauer, P. J., DeBoer, T., & Lukowski, A. F. (2007). In the language of multiple memory systems, defining and describing developments in long-term explicit memory. In Lisa M. Oakes & Patricia J. Bauer (Eds.), Short- and long-term memory in infancy and early childhood: Taking the first steps towards remembering (pp. 240-270). New York: Oxford University Press.PDF

Richmond, J., & DeBoer T. (2006). Mechanisms of change: Exploring not only when and what, but how declarative memory develops. Infant and Child Development, 15, 207-210.PDF


Botdorf, M., Dunstan, J., Sorcher, L., Dougherty, L.R., & Riggins, T. (2022). Socioeconomic disadvantage and episodic memory ability in the ABCD sample: Contributions of hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 18;57:101138. PDF

Botdorf, M., Canada, K. L., & Riggins, T. (2022). A meta-analysis of the relation between hippocampal volume and memory ability in typically developing children and adolescents. Hippocampus, 1– 15. PDF

Canada, K., Hancock, G., & Riggins, T. (2021). Modeling longitudinal changes in hippocampal subfields and relations to memory from early- to mid-childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 48:100947. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2021.100947. PDF

Canada, K. L., Botdorf, M., & Riggins, T. (2020). Longitudinal development of hippocampal subregions from early- to mid-childhood. Hippocampus, 30, 1098-111. PDF

Canada, K., Ngo, C.T., Newcombe, N.S., Geng, F., & Riggins, T. (2019). It’s all in the details: Relations between young children’s developing pattern separation abilities and hippocampal subfield volumes. Cerebral Cortex, 29(8), 3427-3433. DOI:

Botdorf, M. & Riggins, T. (2018) When less is more: Thinner fronto-parietal cortices are associated with better forward digit span performance during early childhood. Neuropsychologia, 121, 11-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.10.020. PubMed PMID: 30393004; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6289754. PDF

Riggins, T., Geng, F., Botdorf, M., Canada, K., Cox, L., & Hancock, G. (2018). Protracted hippocampal development is associated with age-related improvements in memory during early childhood. NeuroImage, 174, 127-137. DOI: PubMed PMID: 29518573; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5949262. PDF

Riggins, T., Blankenship, S. L.*, Mulligan, E., Rice, K., & Redcay, E. (2015). Developmental differences in relations between episodic memory and hippocampal subregion volume during early childhood. Child Development, 86(6), 1710-1718. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12445. PubMed PMID: 26459750; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5875696. PDF

DeBoer, T., Wu, Z., Lee, A., & Simon, T. J. (2007). Hippocampal volume reduction in children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment. Brain and Behavioral Functions, 3, 54. DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-54. PubMed PMID: 17956622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2173902.PDF


Hoffman, L., Ngo, C., Canada, K. L., Ofer, P., Zang, F., Riggins, T., & Olson, I. (2022) The fornix supports episodic memory during childhood. Cerebral Cortex, 2022;, bhac022, PDF

Callow, D. D., Canada, K. L., & Riggins, T. (2020). Microstructural integrity of the hippocampus during childhood: Relations with age and source memory. Frontiers in Psychology, section Developmental Psychology PDF

Ngo, C.T.*, Alm, K.H., Metoki, A., Hampton, W., Riggins, T.R., Newcombe, N.S., & Olson, I.R. (2017). White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 28, 41-53.PDF


Geng, F. & Riggins, T. (2022). Interactions between the hippocampus and fronto-parietal regions during memory encoding in early childhood. Hippocampus.32( 2), 108– 120. PDF

Geng, F., Botdorf, M., & Riggins, T. (2020). How behavior shapes the brain and the brain shapes behavior:Insights from memory development. Journal of Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2611-19.2020 PDF

Geng, F., Redcay, E., & Riggins, T. (2019). The influence of age and performance on hippocampal function and the encoding of contextual information in early childhood. NeuroImage, 195: 433- 443. DOI: PubMed PMID: 30905835; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6536357. PDF

Geng, F., Salmeron, B. J., Ross, T., Black, M., & Riggins, T. (2018). Long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on the neural correlates of memory at encoding and retrieval. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 65, 70-77. DOI: 10.1016/ PubMed PMID: 29107754; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5803433.PDF

Blankenship, S. L.*, Redcay, E., Dougherty, L. R., & Riggins, T. (2017). Development of hippocampal functional connectivity during childhood. Human Brain Mapping, 38(1): 182-201. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.23353. PubMed PMID: 27585371. PDF

Riggins, T., Geng, F., Blankenship, S. L., & Redcay, E. (2016). Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 58-69. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.02.002. PubMed PMID: 26900967; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4912925. PDF


Rollins, L. & Riggins, T. (2021). Adapting event-related potential research paradigms for children: Considerations from research on the development of recognition memory. Developmental Psychobiology, 63(6), e22159. PDF

Canada, K. L., Geng, F., &Riggins, T. (2019). Age- and performance-related differences in source memory retrieval during early childhood: Insights from event-related potentials. Developmental Psychobiology. DOI: PDF

Howard, L., Riggins, T., & Woodward, A. (in press). Learning from others: The effects of agency of event memory in young children. Child Development.

Barry-Anwar, R., Riggins, T., & Scott, L.S. (2020). Electrophysiology in developmental populations: Key methods and findings. To appear in The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (K. Cohen Kadosh, Ed.), Oxford, UK.

Riggins, T. & Scott, L. S. (in press). P300 development from infancy to adolescence. Psychophysiology. PDF

Canada, K. L., Geng, F., &Riggins, T. (2019). Age- and performance-related differences in source memory retrieval during early childhood: Insights from event-related potentials. Developmental Psychobiology. DOI: PDF

Rollins, L.* & Riggins, T. (2017). Age-related differences in subjective recollection: ERP studies of memory encoding and retrieval. Developmental Science. PDF

Robey, A.*, & Riggins, T. (2016). Event-related potential study of intentional and incidental retrieval of item and source memory during early childhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 58(5): 556-567. DOI: 10.1002/dev21401. PubMed PMID: 26969036. PDF

Riggins, T., & Rollins, L. (2015). Developmental changes in memory during early childhood: Insights from event-related potentials. Child Development, 86(3): 889–902. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12351. PubMed PMID: 25677124; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4428939.PDF

Rollins, L.*, & Riggins, T. (2015). Processing and rejection of novel items in childhood: Event-related potential study of similar lures and novel foils. Developmental Psychobiology, 57(2), 263-270. DOI 10.1002/dev.21281. PubMed PMID: 25631694; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4336201. PDFRollins, L.*, & Riggins, T. (2013). Developmental changes in memory encoding: insights from event-related potentials. Developmental Science, 16(4), 599-609. DOI:10.111/desc.12072. PubMed PMID: 23786477. PDF

Riggins, T., Rollins, L.*, & Graham, M.* (2013). Electrophysiological investigation of source memory in early childhood. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(3), 180–196. DOI:10.1080/87565641.2012.762001. PubMed PMID: 23573796; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3922715. PDF

Riggins, T., Miller, N. C., Bauer, P. J., Georgieff, M. K., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Electrophysiological indices of memory for temporal order in early childhood: Implications for the development of recollection. Developmental Science, 12(2), 209-219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00757.x. PubMed PMID: 19143795; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2771175.PDF

DeBoer, T., Scott, L.S., & Nelson, C.A. (2007). Methods for acquiring and analyzing infant event-related potentials. In: Michelle de Haan (Ed.), Infant EEG and Event-Related Potentials. (pp. 5-37). New York: Psychology Press.Page 1 - PDF

DeBoer, T., Scott, L. S., & Nelson., C. A. (2005). Event-related potentials in developmental populations. In Todd Handy (Ed.), Methodological Handbook for Research Using Event-related Potentials (pp. 263-297). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.PDF

Lukowski, A. F., Wiebe, S. A., Haight, J. C., DeBoer, T., Nelson, C. A., & Bauer, P. J. (2005). Forming a stable memory representation in the first year of life: Why imitation is more than child’s play. Developmental Science, 8(3): 279-298. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00415.x. PubMed PMID: 15819758.PDF


Kohn, B. H., Cui, Z., Candelaria, M., Buckingham-Howes, S., Black, M. M., & Riggins, T. (2023). Early emotional caregiving environment and associations with memory performance and hippocampal volume in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 17. PDF

Ewell, A., Allard, T., Botdorf, M., Ji, A., & Riggins, T. (2023). Emotion regulation and reactivity are associated with cortical thickness in early to mid-childhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 65, e22412. PDF

Fitter, M. H., Stern. J. A., Straske, M. D., Allard, T., Cassidy, J., & Riggins, T. (2022). Mothers’ attachment representations and children’s brain structure. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 16, 1-8. PDF

Hubachek, S., Botdorf, M., Riggins, T., Leong, H., Klein, D., & Dougherty, L. (2021) Hippocampal subregion volume in high-risk offspring is associated with increases in depressive symptoms across the transition to adolescence. Journal of Affective Disorders. 281:358-366. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.017 PDF

Chad-Friedman, E., Botdorf, M., Riggins, T., & Dougherty, L.R. (2020). Parental hostility predicts reduced cortical thickness in males. Developmental Science, 148, 107636. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107636. Epub. PDF

Feola, B., Dougherty, L. R., Riggins, T., & Bolger, D. J. (in press). Prefrontal cortical thickness mediates the association between cortisol reactivity and executive function in childhood. Neuropsychologia. PDF

Chad-Friedman, E., Botdorf, M., Riggins, T., & Dougherty, L.R. (2020). Early childhood cumulative risk is associated with decreased global brain measures, cortical thickness, and cognitive functioning in school-age children. Developmental Psychobiology. DOI:

Blankenship, S., Botdorf, M., Riggins, T., & Dougherty, L. (2019). Lasting effects of stress on the brain: Cortisol reactivity during preschool predicts hippocampal functional connectivity at school age. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (40). DOI: PDF

Stern, J. A., Botdorf, M., Cassidy, J., & Riggins, T. (2019). Empathic responding and hippocampal volume in young children [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology, 55(9) 1908-1920. DOI: PubMed PMID: 31464494; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6716619. PDF

Botdorf, M., Riggins, T., & Dougherty, L. R. (2019). Early positive parenting and maternal depression history predict children’s relational binding ability at school-age. Developmental Psychology, 55(11), 2417-2427. PDF

Blankenship, S., Chad-Friedman, E., Riggins, T., & Dougherty, L.R. (2019). Early parenting predicts hippocampal subregion volume via stress reactivity in childhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(1), 125-140. DOI: PDF

Schweitzer, J. B., Riggins, T., Ross, T. J., Black, M. M., & Salmeron, B. J. (2015). Interpretation of prenatal drug exposure functional imaging data. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 52(Pt A), 58-59. DOI: 10.1016/ PubMed PMID: 26518758. PDF

Schweitzer, J., Riggins, T., Liang, X., Gallen, C., Kurup, P. K., Ross, T. J., Black, M., Nair, P., Salmeron, B. J. (2015). Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 48, 69-77. DOI:10.1016/ PubMed PMID: 25683798; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5712231. PDF

Robey, A.*, Buckingham-Howes, S., Salmeron, B. J., Black, M.M., & Riggins, T. (2014). Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 127, 144–162. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2014.01.008. PubMed PMID: 24630759; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4133286. PDF

Wong, L., Riggins, T., Harvey, D., Cabaral, M., & Simon, T. J. (2014). Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome exhibit impaired spatial working memory. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(2), 115–132. DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-119.2.115. PubMed PMID: 24679349; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4036086. PDF

Riggins, T. & Nelson, C. A. (2013). Memory in at-risk populations: Infants who experience metabolic disturbances during the prenatal period. In P. J. Bauer & R. Fivush (Eds.), Handbook on the Development of Children’s Memory. Wiley-Blackwell.PDF

Riggins, T., Cacic, K., Buckingham-Howes, S., Scaletti, L.A., Salmeron, B.J., & Black, M. (2012). Memory ability and hippocampal volume in adolescents with a history of poly-drug exposure during the prenatal period. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 34(4), 434-441. DOI: 10.1016/ PubMed PMID: 22652523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3405159. PDF

Ackerman, J. P., Riggins, T., & Black, M. M. (2010). A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children. Pediatrics, 125(3), 554-565. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0637. PubMed PMID: 20142293; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3150504.PDF

Riggins, T., Bauer, P.J., Georgieff, M.K., & Nelson, C.A. (2010). Declarative memory performance in infants of diabetic mothers. In P.J. Bauer (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Volume 38 - Varieties of Early Experience: Implications for the Development of Declarative Memory in Infancy. London, U.K.: Elsevier.PDF

Riggins, T., Miller, N. C., Bauer, P. J., Georgieff, M. K., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Consequences of low neonatal iron status due to maternal diabetes mellitus on explicit memory performance in early childhood. Developmental Neuropsychology, 34(6), 762–779. DOI: 10.1080/87565640903265145. PubMed PMID: 20183732; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2829708.PDF

DeBoer, T., Wewerka, S., Bauer, P. J., Georgieff, M. K., & Nelson, C. A. (2005). Explicit memory performance in infants of diabetic mothers at 1 year of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47(8): 525-531. DOI: 10.1017/s0012162205001039. PubMed PMID: 16108452; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2829746.PDF


Babu Ganesh, D., Pandey, M., Riggins, T., Spencer, R. M. C., Tiwari, R., Wehland, M., & Leikin, S. (2024). Why older kids do not nap at school. Frontiers for Young Minds, section Human Health. 12:1224593. PDF

Spencer, R. M. C. & Riggins, T. (2022). Contributions of memory and brain development to the bioregulation of naps and nap transitions in early childhood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 119(44):e2123415119. PDF

Mason, G. M., Lokhandwala, S., Riggins, T., & Spencer, R. M. C. (2021). Sleep and cognition in human development. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 57, 101472. PDF

Riggins, T., & Spencer, R. M. C. (2020). Habitual sleep is associated with both source memory and hippocampal subfield volume during early childhood. Scientific Reports. PDF

Allard, T., Riggins, T., Ewell, A., Weinberg, B., Lokhandwala, S., & Spencer, R. M. (2019). Measuring neural mechanisms underlying sleep-dependent memory consolidation during naps in early childhood. Journal of Visualized Experiments (152), e60200. DOI: 10.3791/60200.


Spann, M. N., Wisnowski, J. L. HBCD Phase I Scanning Young Populations Working Group, Smyser, C. D., Fetal, Infant, and Toddler Neuroimaging Group (FIT'NG), Howell, B., Dean, D.C. (2022). The art, science, and secrets of scanning young children. Biological Psychiatry. S0006-3223(22)01633-X. PDF

Chen, G., Xiao, Y., Taylor, P. A., Rajendra, J. K., Riggins, T., Geng, F., Redcay, E., & Cox. R. W. (2019). Handling multiplicity in neuroimaging through Bayesian lenses with multilevel modeling. Neuroinformatics, 17(4): 515-545. DOI: 10.1007/s12021-018-9409-6. PubMed PMID: 30649677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6635105.Read here or in PDF

Zorn, E.P., Zhang, L., Sandness, K., Miller, N., Riggins, T., Georgieff, M.K., & Pfister, K.M. (2018). Preserved speed of processing and memory in infants with a history of moderate neonatal encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Journal of Perinatology, 38, 1666–1673. DOI: PDF

Xiao, Y., Geng, F., Riggins, T., Chen, G., & Redcay, E. (2019). Neural correlates of developing theory of mind competence in early childhood. NeuroImage, 184, 707-716. DOI: PubMed PMID: 30273714; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6230512. PDF

Rollins, L.* & Riggins, T. (2017). Cohort-sequential study of conflict inhibition during middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(6): 663-669. DOI: 10.1177/0165025416656413. PubMed PMID: 29230076; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5722252. PDF

Rice, K., Viscomi, B., Riggins, T., & Redcay, E. (2014). Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 153-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.09.003. PubMed PMID: 24139023; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6987896.PDF

Balas, B., Nelson, C. A., Westerlund, A., Vogel-Farley, V., Riggins, T., & Kuefner, D. (2010). Personal familiarity influences the processing of upright and inverted faces in infants. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 1-6. DOI: 10.3389/neuro.09.001.2010. PubMed PMID: 20204154; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2831707. PDF

Simon, T.J., Takarae, Y., DeBoer, T., McDonald-McGinn, D.M., Zackai, E.H., & Ross, J.L. (2008). Overlapping numerical cognition impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion and Turner Syndromes. Neuropsychologia, 46(1): 82-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.016. PubMed PMID: 17920087; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2249611.PDF


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